BASED ON READING THE TWO ATTACHED ARTICLES COMPOSE A REACTION PAPER ABOUT AN ASPECT OF CHRONIC ILLNESS YOU JUST DISCOVERED. SUPPORT YOUR COMMENTARY WITH CITATIONS FROM THE ASSIGNED READINGS. THE PAPER SHALL BE 1 PAGE AND SHOULD BE DOUBLED SPACED.
CHRONIC DISEASES: THE LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH AND DISABILITY IN THE UNITED STATES CHRONIC DISEASES AND CONDITIONSâ€”SUCH AS HEART DISEASE, STROKE, CANCER, DIABETES, OBESITY, AND ARTHRITISâ€”ARE AMONG THE MOST COMMON, COSTLY, AND PREVENTABLE OF ALL HEALTH PROBLEMS.
Based on reading the two attached articles compose a reaction paper about an aspect of chronic illness you just discovered.
Support your commentary with citations from the assigned readings.
The paper shall be 1 page and should be doubled spaced.
Chronic Diseases: The Leading Causes of Death and Disability in the United States
Chronic diseases and conditionsâ€”such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, obesity, and arthritisâ€”are among the most common,
costly, and preventable of all health problems.
â€¢ As of 2012, about half of all adultsâ€”117 million peopleâ€”had one or more chronic health conditions. One of four adults had two
or more chronic health conditions.1
â€¢ Seven of the top 10 causes of death in 2010 were chronic diseases. Two of these chronic diseasesâ€”heart disease and cancerâ€”
together accounted for nearly 48% of all deaths.2
â€¢ Obesity is a serious health concern. During 2009â€“2010, more than one-third of adults, or about 78 million people, were obese
(defined as body mass index [BMI] â‰¥30 kg/m2). Nearly one of five youths aged 2â€“19 years was obese (BMI â‰¥95th percentile).3
â€¢ Arthritis is the most common cause of disability.4 Of the 53 million adults with a doctor diagnosis of arthritis, more than 22
million say they have trouble with their usual activities because of arthritis.5
â€¢ Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, lower-limb amputations other than those caused by injury, and new cases of
blindness among adults.6
Health Risk Behaviors that Cause Chronic Diseases
Health risk behaviors are unhealthy behaviors you can change. Four of these health risk behaviorsâ€”lack of exercise or physical
activity, poor nutrition, tobacco use, and drinking too much alcoholâ€”cause much of the illness, suffering, and early death related to
chronic diseases and conditions.
â€¢ In 2011, more than half (52%) of adults aged 18 years or older did not meet recommendations for aerobic exercise or physical
activity. In addition, 76% did not meet recommendations for muscle-strengthening physical activity.7
â€¢ About half of US adults (47%) have at least one of the following major risk factors for heart disease or stroke: uncontrolled
high blood pressure, uncontrolled high LDL cholesterol, or are current smokers.8 Ninety percent of Americans consume too much sodium,
increasing their risk of high blood pressure.9
â€¢ In 2011, more than one-third (36%) of adolescents and 38% of adults said they ate fruit less than once a day, while 38% of
adolescents and 23% of adults said they ate vegetables less than once a day.10
â€¢ More than 42 million adultsâ€”close to 1 of every 5â€”said they currently smoked cigarettes in 2012.11 Cigarette smoking accounts
for more than 480,000 deaths each year.11 Each day, more than 3,200 youth younger than 18 years smoke their first cigarette, and
another 2,100 youth and young adults who smoke every now and then become daily smokers.11
â€¢ Drinking too much alcohol is responsible for 88,000 deaths each year, more than half of which are due to binge drinking.12, 13
About 38 million US adults report binge drinking an average of 4 times a month, and have an average of 8 drinks per binge, yet most
binge drinkers are not alcohol dependent.14
The Cost of Chronic Diseases and Health Risk Behaviors
In the United States, chronic diseases and conditions and the health risk behaviors that cause them account for most health care costs.
â€¢ Eighty-six percent of all health care spending in 2010 was for people with one or more chronic medical conditions.15
â€¢ The total costs of heart disease and stroke in 2010 were estimated to be $315.4 billion. Of this amount, $193.4 billion was for
direct medical costs, not including costs of nursing home care.16
â€¢ Cancer care cost $157 billion in 2010 dollars.17
â€¢ The total estimated cost of diagnosed diabetes in 2012 was $245 billion, including $176 billion in direct medical costs and $69
billion in decreased productivity. Decreased productivity includes costs associated with people being absent from work, being less
productive while at work, or not being able to work at all because of diabetes.18
â€¢ The total cost of arthritis and related conditions was about $128 billion in 2003. Of this amount, nearly $81 billion was for
direct medical costs and $47 billion was for indirect costs associated with lost earnings.19
â€¢ Medical costs linked to obesity were estimated to be $147 billion in 2008. Annual medical costs for people who are obese were
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