What is Referencing? – Nursing Doctors
What suggestions would you make based on your knowledge of the determinants of healthy aging?
June 15, 2021
Educational Innovation and Change This brief guide is primarily for students doing assignments at Curtin University not for those publishing using the APA 6th style. If you are publishing in the APA 6th style please consult the APA publication manual: American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington DC: Author. If you require extra help not available in this guide please try ? APA style guide to electronic references ? APA Style Blog Guide contents Overview: ? What is referencing? ? Why reference? ? Steps involved in referencing ? Elements of a reference ? Sample reference list ? Reference types for EndNote X7 Reference Examples: ? Books and eBooks ? Journals (Print and Online) ? World Wide Web ? Government Publications ? Other Sources ? Authors Citing Other Authors It is important that you check the assignment guide of your Department or School as details may vary from the guidelines on this sheet. You may be penalised for not using the referencing style that is required by your School/Department. Academic integrity and plagiarism Plagiarism breaches academic integrity and is a serious accusation in academia. Make sure you avoid plagiarism by referencing your sources. Refer to the Curtin University student booklet Academic Integrity: Student Guidelines for Avoiding Plagiarism for definitions and University policies relating to academic integrity and plagiarism. CURTIN UNIVERSITY LIBRARY APA 6th REFERENCING Page 2 of 14 What is Referencing? Referencing is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that you have used in your assignment in a way that uniquely identifies their source. Direct quotations facts and figures as well as ideas and theories from both published and unpublished works must be referenced. Why Reference? Referencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism to verify quotations and to enable readers to follow-up and read more fully the cited authors arguments. Steps Involved in Referencing 1. Collecting Bibliographic Details Note down the full bibliographic details of the source from which the information is taken including the relevant page number(s). This information is the basis of a citation or reference. In the case of a book bibliographical details refers to: author/editor year of publication title edition volume number place of publication and publisher as found on the front and back of the title page. (Not all of these details will necessarily be applicable). In the case of a journal article the details required include: author of the article year of publication title of the article title of the journal volume and issue number of the journal and page numbers. For all electronic information in addition to the above you should note the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if one exists and if one does not exist the web address (URL) of the database you found the article in. For more details see the DOI Information Sheet. 2. In-Text Citations A citation inserted at the appropriate place within the text of the document is called an in-text citation. This usually takes the form of the name of the author followed by the year of publication. Two acceptable forms of in-text citations are: Miller and Collins (2009) use and when family names are outside parentheses (Miller & Collins 2009) use & when family names are inside parentheses If two or more authors are cited at the same point in the text then they are included in the same in-text citation separated by a semicolon e.g. (Brown 1991; Smith 2003). Short quotes For fewer that 40 words incorporate the quote into the text and use double quotation marks. . (Brown & Brown 2008 p.112). Brown and Brown (2008) suggested (p. 112) and this would provide When paraphrasing the APA 6th manual (p.171) encourages you to provide page or paragraph numbers to help the reader locate the information. Use paragraph number for .html documents (e.g. British Empire 1922 2009 para.4) Page 3 of 14 Page Numbers Use p. for a single page and pp. for double pages. Long Quotes If the quotation is 40 or more words use a freestanding block of text ? start on a new line ? indent the block about half an inch from the left ? use double spacing ? omit quotations marks 3. Reference List A reference list includes books journal articles etc that you have cited in the text of your essay whereas a bibliography is a list of sources consulted as well as cited. ? The reference should appear at the end of your work on a separate page ? The reference list is arranged alphabetically by author ? Where an item has no author it is cited and listed by its title ? The second and subsequent lines of each reference need a hanging indent ? Use double spacing between references Example of a Reference List in the APA style Reference Types to use with EndNote Page 4 of 14 Elements of a Reference A reference or citation consists of elements that allow the reader to trace the original book article or website you have consulted and cited. Underlined hyperlink in URL This can be removed if required. APA has no rule regarding the inclusion of a hyperlink and they provide no guidance. This is at the discretion of the respective lecturers. For more information see the APA Style Blog FAQ Book title Mack C. (2005). Looking at the Renaissance: Essays toward a conceptual appreciation. London UK: Taylor & Francis. Author (Year) Place of publication Publisher Book: Pope J. & Owen A. D. (2009). Emission trading schemes: Potential revenue effects compliance costs and overall tax policy issues. Energy Policy 37 4595-4603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.06.014 Journal article from a database: DOI Journal title Volume number Web Page: Article page numbers Steel W. (2008). Hints for web authors. Retrieved from http://www.mcsr.olemiss.edu/~mudws/webhints.html Author (Year) Title URL of the web page Title of the journal article Author (Year) Reference Types to use with EndNote For Reference Types to use with EndNote click here for the EndNote X5 LibGuide For Reference Types to use with EndNote click here for the EndNote X5 LibGuide For Reference Types to use with EndNote click here for the EndNote X5 LibGuide Page 5 of 14 Books (Print & Online) In-Text Example Reference List Examples Single author The theory was first considered in 2000 (Pash 2008) OR Pash (2008) claimed that Pash C. (2008). The last whale. North Fremantle WA: Fremantle Press. 2 authors Roitman and LaFontaine (2012) OR to achieve consistency (Roitman & LaFontaine 2012 p. 45) Roitman J. L. & LaFontaine T. P. (2012). The exercise professionals guide to optimizing health: Strategies for preventing and reducing chromic disease. Philadelphia PA: Wolters Kluwer Health. 345 authors Conking Alley Broecker and Denton (2011) Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. In subsequent citations include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. Conking et al. (2011) suggested that OR (Conking et al. 2011) Conking P. W. Alley R. B. Broecker W. S. & Denton G. H. (2011). The fate of Greenland: Lessons from abrupt climate change. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. 67 authors Bulliet et al. (2011) found that OR (Bulliet et al. 2011) Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. Bulliet R. W. Crossley P. K. Headrick D. R. Hirsch S. W. Johnson L. L. & Northrup D. (2011). The earth and its peoples: A global history (5th ed.). Boston MA: Wadsworth. 8 or more authors (Gradel et al. 2007 p. 35) OR Gradel et al. (2007 p. 35) stated Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. Gradel E. Kolaitis P. G. Libkin L. Marx M. Spencer J. Vardi M. Y. Weinstein S. (2007). Finite model theory and its applications. Berlin Germany: Springer. For works with 8 or more authors list the first 6 authors followed by 3 full stops () then the last authors name. No author (Employment the professional way 2000) OR the book Employment the professional way (2000) Shorten title Employment the professional way: A guide to understanding the Australian job search process for professionally qualified migrants. (2000). Carlton Vic: Australian Multicultural Foundation. Page 6 of 14 Books (Print & Online) In-Text Example Reference List Examples Multiple works by same author University research (Martin 2008 2010) has indicated that Martin G. (2008). Essentials of terrorism: Concepts and controversies. Los Angeles CA: Sage Publications. Martin G. (2010). Understanding terrorism: Challenges perspectives and issues. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications. Order chronologically in the reference list. Multiple works published in the same year by the same author In recent reports (Napier 1993a 1993b) Use a/b etc. to differentiate between works in same year. Napier A. (1993a). Fatal storm. Sydney NSW: Allen & Unwin. Napier A. (1993b). Survival at sea. Sydney NSW: Allen & Unwin. Order alphabetically by title in the reference list. Works by different authors with same surname (L. Green 2010) OR L. Green (2010) (R. Green 2008) OR R. Green (2008) Green L. (2010). The internet: An introduction to new media. New York NY: Berg. Green R. (2008). Global warming. Ann Arbor MI: Cherry Lake Publishing. Editor (Kasdorf 2003 p. 15) Kasdorf W. E. (Ed.). (2003). The Columbia guide to digital publishing. New York NY: Columbia University Press. Different Editions (Renton 2004 p. 51)